Causes of the Zika Virus Spread

A global epidemic of the Zika virus provides plagued the Pacific Islands, the Americas, and some African and Southeast Asiatic countries. Currently, Brazil holds the best record of Zika virus-positive conditions in Latin America that have devasted and terrified the country. The World Health Business (WHO), an organization of the United Nations (UN), has declared Zika virus infection as a newly arising disease to end up being managed in addition to a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC)(Gulland, 2016). Generally, Zika virus is a single-stranded RNA virus of the genus Flavivirus which can be related to other flaviviruses such as for example dengue virus, yellowish fever virus, West Nile virus and St. Louis encephalitis virus (Lanciotti RS, 2008; Scaramozzino, Crance, Jouan, DeBriel, Stoll, & Garin, (2001)). Clinical complications namely, the Guillain-Barre syndrome, congenital syndromes, miscarriages, and even death have already been correlated with Zika virus attacks. Zika virus is not a new virus. In fact, it has been found out and documented a lot more than 50 years ago. Only just lately, it has received unparalleled attention and has generated such global alarm by the global overall health community. The first individual illness due to Zika virus infection was initially documented in 1953 in Nigeria (MacNamara, 1954). By September 2015, investigators in Brazil saw a rise in the amount of infants born with microcephaly which is normally one of many clinical complications linked with Zika virus infections. By mid-February 2016, over 4300 circumstances of microcephaly have been recorded (Victora, Schuler-Faccini, Matijasevich, Ribeiro, Pessoa, & Barros, (2016)). The question that now reflects in people’s head would be, “what are the sources of the pass on of Zika virus mosquitoes?” There are various factors behind the rapid dissemination of the virus, however the more major reasons will be the carriers of the condition, the abundance of breeding ground, and climate change.

Firstly, the main reason for the spread of the virus would just about all evidently become the mosquitoes infected with the Zika virus. Not all mosquitoes become carriers but the predominant vector responsible for the spread may be the yellow fever mosquito or in scientific terms, the Aedes aegypti mosquito which can be a most important vector for the transmitting of dengue through the entire globe. According to Dasti, prior to the outbreak of Zika virus in Brazil, distribution of Aedes aegypti possesses been predicted across distinct continents. Based on the entomological data obtainable, it is demonstrated that high concentration of this species in Brazil could be the main contributor to the outbreak and also the quick dissemination of Zika virus infections across the country (Kraemer, Sinka, Duda, Mylne, Shearer, Barker, & Hendrickx (2015)). Thankfully, the Aedes aegypti mosquito will not tolerate colder climates and is currently limited to tropical and subtropical regions of the globe (Brown, Evans, Zheng, Obas, Barrera‐Martinez, Egizi, & Powell, (2014)). Additionally, there are other potential species of Aedes mosquitoes that may also transmit the virus such as Aedes furcifer, Aedes metallicus, Aedes africanus, and Aedes hensillican.

Another cause of the outbreak is the abundance of breeding grounds which takes on a significant function in the reproduction and pass on of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes which are the principal carrier of the Zika virus. In past times 50 years, there was an explosion in the number of plastic containers which have created a good amount of best larval habitat for the Aedes aegypti mosquito. Occupants in countries that has little awareness and education about the value of hygiene and sanitation have taken their metropolitan areas and towns for granted and also have caused their community to be a perfect breeding surface for Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Troncoso has determined several containers such as bottles, bottle caps, buckets, basins, empty tin cans, puddles, pots, barrels with water, containers on the top to acquire rainwater, tanker, used tires, and various other artificial containers that may hold water (p. 522). Troncoso has also discovered common town areas with great concentrations of people such as bus stations, parks, and academic institutions happen to be potential sites for mosquito breeding (p. 522). Breeding sites for Aedes mosquitoes can be found all around the house also. Female Aedes aegypti mosquitoes lay eggs in drinking water kept containers, which creates the chance for breeding. Furthermore, according to Alcides, cemeteries can even be considered as an excellent location for breeding of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Results of over 30 analyses from the last 10 years linked to mosquitoes in cemeteries have been published. In general, “cemeteries are very ideal habitats for mosquitoes” that thrive in artificial containers provided the broad availability of sources they need. It is strongly recommended that eliminating unused containers and daily transformation water trough for pets or animals and vases can decrease the risk of Zika an infection (Ayorinde, Oboh, Otubanjo, Alimba, & Odeigah, 2014). Any stagnant water is actually a breeding floor for mosquitoes and majority of them are caused by man (Kilpatrick & Randolph, 2012; Vasilakis, Cardosa, Hanley, Holmes, & Weaver, 2011).

Besides that, climate change is an essential factor that can worsen the pass on of the Zika virus. The Zika epidemic additionally proves that climate change is starting to affect human health. According to the United Nations (UN), the rise in temperature ranges enhances the breeding and transmitting of the Zika virus. The worsening climate increases the frequency of natural disasters all over the world which is often even more devasting to countries with a poorer infrastructure (Troncoso, 2016, p. 521). Relating to Troncoso, the transmission of infectious diseases such as for example dengue or Zika is certainly sensitive to climatic situations (p. 521). The ever changing climatic environment which include temp, humidity, rainfall, and soil humidity make a difference the viruses that will be transferred by insects (Brady, Golding, Pigott, Kraemer, Messina, Reiner Jr, & Hay, 2014). Warming of tropical and sub-tropical climates provides improved hook for an essay the problem for Zika holding Aedes aegypti mosquitoes to breed. Climate transformation has amplified the health dangers of the poorest persons, who will be vulnerable and in jeopardy from the significant increase in disease by the Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Human activities such as substantial deforestation and dam structure have induced the extinction of all natural predators and evolved the biodiversity which includes increased the risk of contact with mosquitoes. Occupants of countries that have tropical or sub-tropical climates and also have difficult access to healthcare “are affected the most serious consequences” (p. 522) of the disease (Johansson, M. A good., Dominici, F., & Glass, 2009). Consequently, as Troncoso (2016) confirms, climate changes is a “potentially very important factor.” that can bring different epidemics of Zika and even the risk of a pandemic worldwide (p. 521).

In conclusion, facts has shown that the outbreak of the Zika virus is the consequence and faults of our improper handling in past times, also with the existing environmental factors. Unfortunately, the current generation has to suffer the undesireable effects of the spread of this disease. Zika virus is usually a significant global health problem that has already spread to numerous regions on Earth and is expected to spread more rapidly given the actual fact that the virus could be transmitted sexually and by mosquito bites. The global well being community includes a responsibility to analyze microbiology lab report and develop a solution to solve this issue as we’ve little knowledge about the virus. For the meantime, people should take extreme precaution when planing a trip to countries which have significant cases of Zika virus infection. Carrying the disease back home would be the last thing you want to do.